As teachers move away from balanced literacy instruction grounded in using leveled text and "word solving" based on the text's meaning, syntax, and visual information, several practical questions emerge about classroom grouping practices.
How much time to spend in whole group vs. small group?
Universal screening data should help answer this question. If most of your students score at the same level on a skill, it makes sense to teach it in a whole group format. However, if there is a wide range of performance on a skill, it might be better to use targeted small group instruction.
Many times, this sorts out into teaching vocabulary listening comprehension, and background knowledge in whole group, and phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, and reading comprehension in small groups.
How to put students into small groups?
Universal screening data that indicates the essential early literacy skills provides a starting place for forming small groups. Basic patterns of strengths and needs...
I recently posted a video about my love of the Nonsense Word Fluency assessment that generate lots of questions and discussion. People asked for a document that included the points I had made in the video. I couldn't find anything, so I'm attempting a summary here. Let me know what you think.
Why Do So Many Assessments Use Non-words?
Reading non-words is a true indicator of the alphabetic principle and basic phonics. To read non-words, students must apply their knowledge of phoneme-grapheme relationships to decoding.
The alphabetic principle is an essential understanding that includes two parts:
1. the understanding that letters represent sound
2. the ability to recode letter sounds into whole words
Reading non-words requires accurately and automatically matching sounds to symbols, and blending the letter-sounds into words.
Students will only do well on nonword reading if they have acquired the alphabetic principle. Students who are reading via rote memorization of...
If you’ve been following the recent conversation about phonemic awareness, you may be experiencing a range of thoughts and emotions that include avoidance, confusion, and disappointment. I’ve felt all of those, and more!
Many of you have expressed thoughts along the lines of … If the experts can’t agree, then is there really a science of reading?
Although I don’t support the personal attacks and angry rants, I recognize that disagreement and conflicting conclusions are essential elements of science. Science advances through the free exchange of ideas – even opposing and conflicting ideas – in a community of professionals who are willing to keep each other honest.
Raising questions about prevailing beliefs and practices is healthy, normal, and necessary. The ideas and practices that hold up to challenges are the ones we can implement with confidence. The ideas and practices that lack scientific support form the basis for future...
Reading for Life
An accessible introduction to the essential early literacy skills, the reading wars, and effective reading instruction.
Archer and Hughes
The definitive guide to designing instruction that is explicit, systematic and sequential.
Gibbons, Brown and Niebling
Effective Universal Instruction
A practical guide for analyzing and improving Tier 1 reading instruction.
Speech to Print
The best way to learn the language foundations of reading and writing.
Language at the Speed of Sight
A comprehensive review of the reading research and reasons for the gap between research and practice.
Before I read Speech to Print or took LETRS training for the first time, I thought there were exactly three things to know about vowels:
Wrong, wrong, and boy was I wrong!
Since that time, I’ve learned soooooo much about vowels. I suspect there is still more to learn. The study of the English language never ends!
I’m going to share a list of what I now think about vowels, and ask you to revise and extend my list.
Here goes…in no particular order:
Every couple of months I hear this phrase …my triangle is upside down… and I am reminded of the need to clarify the tiered systems of support represented by the triangle graphic used in MTSS.
When people say their triangle is upside down, they mean they have more students who are at risk than who are on track. But the three-tiered model is about instruction, not students. There are no Tier 1 students, Tier 2 students and Tier 3 students, only Tier 1 instruction, Tier 2 instruction, and Tier 3 instruction. Understanding the three-tiered model and the purposes of universal screening can provide the mechanisms for turning things around.
The Three-Tiered Model
The three-tiered model is about prevention of reading failure. The tiers describe a system of increasingly intensive instructional supports that cause all students to reach grade-level reading expectations. The tiered model provides a framework for efficiently using data to match student needs to the...
Have you ever heard someone say they hate standardized tests? Or that schools are doing too much standardized testing?
The term “standardized test” is used to lump together all types of group-administered achievement measures given in schools.
Often, the term “standardized test” is confused with the term “norm-referenced” test, although these are two different aspects of assessment.
Standardized tests are given and scored according to standard procedures, typically outlined in an assessment manual. Standardized procedures allow each student to be compared to every other student who was tested under the same conditions. Training is typically needed to learn to give and score the test according to the standard conditions.
The term “norm-referenced” has nothing to do with the way a test is given and scored, but instead refers to the way test scores are interpreted.
Every Word Wants to be a Sight Word When It Grows Up*
Automatic word recognition is required to facilitate reading comprehension.
To be recognized instantly, words must be stored in long-term memory as wholes, where the spelling, pronunciation, and meaning are fused together. The whole word must be “mapped” into your memory as an integrated unit.
The process of storing words for instant recognition follows the same instructional sequence for highly phonetically regular and phonetically less regular words.
These practices establish the neural connectivity among the letters, sounds, and meaning of the word.
It is the same process for highly regular and less regular words.
The lower the frequency of the word, and the more irregular spelling representations in the word, the more...